Miqat is a place which pilgrims should wear Ihram and from there go for Hajj or Umrah. They should not pass these places without Ihram.
Miqats of Ihram are ten places of which five of them are the main ones.
1) Masjid al-Shajarah
Masjid al-Shajarah is located beside Medina, and today it is known as “Abar Ali”. All persons who want to perform Hajj from Medina should become Muhrim from this place, and it is not permitted to delay in this act and for example becomes Muhrim from Juhfah, which is located in the middle of the way of Mecca to Medina, unless ill or weak people or other persons who have other problems.
It is not obligatory to wear Ihram from inside the mosque and it is possible to perform this act beside the mosque, and there is no difference between old mosque and this new one which has been expanded so much, therefore women who are in their menstrual period can wear Ihram outside of the mosque.
Juhfah is a place in the middle of the distance between Medina and Mecca, 150 km from Mecca, which is some distance from the main road, and this is the Miqat of people who come for Hajj from Egypt, north of Africa, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon (road trip), also all persons who are passing from this way.
Muslims from Iran and other places who enter the airport of Jeddah by airplane and do not want to go to medina can go to Juhfah, and become Muhrim there and then go to Mecca.
There is a mosque in Juhfah, from where it is possible to wear Ihram from inside or outside of that mosque. But it is better to wear Ihram from inside the mosque.
3) Wadi Aqeeq
Wadi Aqeeq is a place located in north east of Mecca approximately 94 km from the city and that is the Miqat for people of “Iraq” and “Najd”, and all people who are passing from that way can become Muhrim from there. This Miqat has three sections; section one is called “Maslakh”, and second one is called “Qumrah” and the third one is called “Dhat Irq” (also Zaat Irq) and although it is better to wear Ihram from “Maslakh”, which is the first section, it is permitted to become Muhrim from any of these three sections.
4- Qarn al-Manazil
Qarn al-Manazil is a place located near “Ta’if” which is about 94 km from Mecca and this is the Miqat for people from there or those who pass from that way. Also all people who enter Jeddah can go to that place and become Muhrim from there.
“Yalamlam” is the name of a hill in southern regions of Mecca (about 84 km from Mecca) and this is the Miqat of those who come from the south parts of Arabian Peninsula like Yemen to Mecca, also all people who pass that way can become Muhrim in there.
There are five main Miqats.
6- The City of Mecca
“Mecca” is the Miqat for “hajj al-Tamattu’”; it means that pilgrims wear Ihram for performing Hajj, in which its first act is going to “Arafat”, after performing Umrah from the city of Mecca.
Article 43 There is no difference between places of Mecca and the pilgrim can become Muhrim from any place of this city, even places that have been added to Mecca today during the advancements of city in the past years. But the place should not be out of the zone of Haram as an obligatory precaution; For example, today Mecca has been expanded and has gone beyond Masjid al-Tan’eem, which is the closest boundary of Haram, and if a person becomes Muhrim from that place which is out of boundaries of Haram, this act is not free of problem and the best place is Masjid al-Haraam.
7- House of the Pilgrim
Miqat for persons whose houses are closer to Mecca than the Miqat, then their own houses can be their Miqat. However, it is permitted and also better than they go to one of those first quintet Miqats and become Muhrim from those places.
“Ji’irranah” is a place at the end of Haram between Ta’if and Mecca, and people of Mecca and those who have lived there for two years of more, should wear Ihram from this place as an obligatory precaution.
9- Parallel places to one of Miqats
Those who do not pass Miqats should become Muhrim whenever they reach a place parallel to one of the Miqat and it is not necessary to go to one of first quintet Miqats, and if they pass two places parallel to two of Miqats, they should wear Ihram in the first place that is parallel to the first Miqat.
When the pilgrim surely knows the location of the place parallel to Miqat or he/she asks the location from informed people, it is enough for wearing Ihram from that place. But if he/she has doubt about this matter and there is no way of finding the correct answer, then it is better that he/she performs Nazr of Ihram before reaching that place and becomes Muhrim from there.
Whenever a pilgrim is passing from a direction in which there is no place parallel to one of Miqats, then he/she should go to one of Miqats and become Muhrim from there as a precaution; and if this not possible, then he should become Muhrim from a place where there is a possibility of being parallel to one of Miqats, in his/her opinion, and then renew his/her Ihram after reaching the closest point to Haram (around Mecca). This means that the pilgrim makes the intention again and says “Labbayk”.
There is no difference between places, which are parallel to Miqats in being in the desert, sea or air. Therefore, if the pilgrim passes one place parallel to one of Miqats in airplane, then he/she should become Muhrim from that place and immediately says “Labbayk” (and ruling for the matter is that the pilgrim is under a roof in this condition, will be mentioned later).
10- Adni al-Hal
“Adni al-Hal” means the first point out of Haram, and this is the Miqat of those who perform Umrah al-Mufradah (consisting of Umrah of Hajj al-Qiran and Ifrad or Umrah al-Mufradah, which is possible to perform in any time of the year).
It is better for a pilgrim to wear Ihram from one of these three places, “Hudaybiyah” or “Ji’irranah” or “Tan’eem” which are famous among people of Mecca for Umrah al-Mufradah .It is easier for those who want to perform Umrah al-Mufradah after Hajj to go to Masjid al-Tan’eem, (which is about 80 km from Masjid al-Haraam and today has been become as a part of the city of Mecca) and become Muhrim from that place.
Those who are going to Mecca for performing Umrah al-Mufradah from Jeddah should become Muhrim from “Hudaybiyah” (which is about 17 km from Mecca and is the farthest boundary of Haram).
It is better that Ihram of Umrah al-Mufradah also perform from one of first quintet Miqats (Masjid al-Shajarah, Juhfah, Qarn al-Manazil, Wadi Aqeeq and Yalamlam). Therefore, it is better that those who intend to perform Umrah al-Mufradah and went to Medina before, become Muhrim from Masjid al-Shajarah or at least Juhfah.
Briefly, sequence of Miqats is as follows:
1- Miqat of “Umrah of Hajj al-Tamattu’” is one of first quintet Miqats, if the Hajj is obligatory or Mustahab.
2- Miqat of “Hajj al-Tamattu’” is Mecca.
3- Miqat of “Hajj al-Ifrad or Qiran” is one of quintet Miqats.
4- Miqat of “Umrah al-Mufradah” is Adni al-Hal; it means the first point that is out of Haram of Mecca (like Tan’eem, Ji’irranah or Hudaybiyah).
5- Miqat of those whom their own houses are after Miqats is that their houses can become Muhrim from there for Umrah al-Tamattu’ or Hajj al-Ifrad and Qiran, but it is better that they also become Muhrim from one of quintet Miqats.